SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a messaging protocol that allows programs that run on disparate operating systems (such as Windows and Linux) to communicate using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and its Extensible Markup Language (XML).


XML (Extensible Markup Language)
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to describe data. The XML standard is a flexible way to create information formats and electronically share structured data via the public Internet, as well as via corporate networks.


HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the set of rules for transferring files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. As soon as a Web user opens their Web browser, the user is indirectly making use of HTTP. HTTP is an application protocol that runs on top of the TCP/IP suite of protocols (the foundation protocols for the Internet).


Web server
A Web server is a program that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to serve the files that form Web pages to users, in response to their requests, which are forwarded by their computers' HTTP clients. Dedicated computers and appliances may be referred to as Web servers as well.


Secure Shell (SSH)
SSH, also known as Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that provides administrators with a secure way to access a remote computer. SSH also refers to the suite of utilities that implement the protocol. Secure Shell provides strong authentication and secure encrypted data communications between two computers connecting over an insecure network such as the Internet. SSH is widely used by network administrators for managing systems and applications remotely, allowing them to log in to another computer over a network, execute commands and move files from one computer to another.


Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what it is declared to be.


1) In general, messaging (also called electronic messaging ) is the creation, storage, exchange, and management of text, images, voice, telex, fax , e-mail, paging, and Electronic Data Interchange ( EDI ) over a communications network.

2) In programming, messaging is the exchange of message s (specially-formatted data describing events, requests, and replies) to a messaging server , which acts as a message exchange program for client programs. There are two major messaging server models: the point-to-point model and the publish/subscribe model. Messaging allows programs to share common message-handling code, to isolate resources and interdependencies, and to easily handle an increase in message volume. Messaging also makes it easier for programs to communicate across different programming environments (languages, compilers, and operating systems) since the only thing that each environment needs to understand is the common messaging format and protocol.

IBM's MQSeries and Sun Microsystems Java Message Service ( JMS ) are examples of products that provide messaging interfaces and services.


RemoteProcedure Calls (RPC)

SOAP is analogous to Remote Procedure Calls (RPC), used in many technologies such as DCOM and CORBA, but eliminates some of the complexities of using these interfaces. SOAP enables applications to call functions from other applications, running on any hardware platform, regardless of different operating systems or programming languages.



Middleware is a general term for software that serves to "glue together" separate, often complex and already existing, programs. Some software components that are frequently connected with middleware include enterprise applications and Web services.

Middleware often sits between the operating system and applications on different servers and simplifies the development of applications that leverage services from other applications. This allows programmers to create business applications without having to custom craft integrations for each new application.

Typically, middleware programs provide messaging services so that different applications can communicate using messaging frameworks like Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Web services, Representational State Transfer (REST) and JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). The systematic tying together of disparate applications, often through the use of middleware, is known as enterprise application integration (EAI).


Web services (Application services)

Web services (sometimes called application services) are services (usually including some combination of programming and data, but possibly including human resources as well) that are made available from a business's Web server for Web users or other Web-connected programs. Providers of Web services are generally known as application service provider s. Web services range from such major services as storage management and customer relationship management ( CRM ) down to much more limited services such as the furnishing of a stock quote and the checking of bids for an auction item. The accelerating creation and availability of these services is a major Web trend.


REST (REpresentational State Transfer) 

REST (REpresentational State Transfer) is an architectural style, and an approach to communications that is often used in the development of Web services. The use of REST is often preferred over the more heavyweight SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) style because REST does not leverage as much bandwidth, which makes it a better fit for use over the Internet. The SOAP approach requires writing or using a provided server program (to serve data) and a client program (to request data).

REST'S decoupled architecture, and lighter weight communications between producer and consumer, make REST a popular building style for cloud-based APIs, such as those provided by Amazon, Microsoft, and Google. When Web services use REST architecture, they are called RESTful APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) or REST APIs.


Application program interface (API)
An application program interface (API) is code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other.
The API defines the correct way for a developer to write a program that requests services from an operating system (OS) or other application. APIs are implemented by function calls composed of verbs and nouns.The required syntax is described in the documentation of the application being called.
Typically, APIs are released for third-party development as part of a software development kit (SDK) or as an open API published on the Internet. If the applications are written in different languages or have been written for different platforms, middleware can provide messaging services so the two applications can communicate with each other.



A RESTful API is an application program interface (API) that uses HTTP requests to GET, PUT, POST and DELETE data.


JSON (Javascript Object Notation)

JSON (Javascript Object Notation) is a text-based, human-readable data interchange format used for representing simple data structures and objects in Web browser-based code. JSON is also sometimes used in desktop and server-side programming environments. JSON was originally based on the Javascript programming language and was introduced as the page scripting language for the Netscape Navigator Web browser.


CRUD cycle (Create, Read, Update and Delete Cycle)

The CRUD cycle describes the elemental functions of a persistent database. CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete. (Retrieve may occasionally be substituted for Read.) These functions are also descriptive of the data life cycle.

Different users may have different CRUD cycles based upon the requirements of the system. A customer, for instance, might have the ability to create an account, retrieve it upon return to a website, update billing information, or delete it if necessary. An operations manager, by contrast, might create product records, call them up as needed, modify packaging or raw materials details or delete it if the product was discontinued.


Web Services Description Language (WSDL)

The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is an XML-based language used to describe the services a business offers and to provide a way for individuals and other businesses to access those services electronically. WSDL is the cornerstone of the Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) initiative spearheaded by Microsoft, IBM, and Ariba. UDDI is an XML-based registry for businesses worldwide, which enables businesses to list themselves and their services on the Internet. WSDL is the language used to do this.


XSD (XML Schema Definition)

XSD (XML Schema Definition) is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommendation that specifies how to formally describe the elements in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) document. This description can be used to verify that each item of content in a document adheres to the description of the element in which the content is to be placed. XSD 1.1 became an approved W3C standard in April 2012.

XSD can also be used for generating XML documents that can be treated as programming objects. In addition, a variety of XML processing tools can also generate human readable documentation, which makes it easier to understand complex XML documents.


SOA (Service-oriented architecture)

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an approach used to create an architecture based upon the use of services. Services (such as RESTful Web services) carry out some small function, such as producing data, validating a customer, or providing simple analytical services.
In addition to building and exposing services, SOA has the ability to leverage these services over and over again within applications (known as composite applications). SOA binds these services to orchestration, or individually leverages these services. Thus, SOA is really about fixing existing architectures by addressing most of the major systems as services, and abstracting those services into a single domain where they are formed into solutions.


Dependency injection (DI)

In object-oriented programming (OOP) software design, dependency injection (DI) is the process of supplying a resource that a given piece of code requires. The required resource, which is often a component of the application itself, is called a dependency.
When a client (a software component that requests something) requires other components in order to successfully carry out its intended purpose, the client must know what resources are needed, where to locate them and how to communicate with them. One way of structuring code is to embed the logic for locating resources in each client. This approach, which is tightly coupled, can be problematic, however, because if a resource should change location, the embedded code must be rewritten.


Unit testing

Unit testing is a software development process in which the smallest testable parts of an application, called units, are individually and independently scrutinized for proper operation. Unit testing is often automated but it can also be done manually. This testing mode is a component of Extreme Programming (XP), a pragmatic method of software development that takes a meticulous approach to building a product by means of continual testing and revision.
Unit testing involves only those characteristics that are vital to the performance of the unit under test. This encourages developers to modify the source code without immediate concerns about how such changes might affect the functioning of other units or the program as a whole. Once all of the units in a program have been found to be working in the most efficient and error-free manner possible, larger components of the program can be evaluated by means of integration testing.


Integration testing or integration and testing (I&T)

Integration testing, also known as integration and testing (I&T), is a software development process which program units are combined and tested as groups in multiple ways. In this context, a unit is defined as the smallest testable part of an application. Integration testing can expose problems with the interfaces among program components before trouble occurs in real-world program execution. Integration testing is a component of Extreme Programming (XP), a pragmatic method of software development that takes a meticulous approach to building a product by means of continual testing and revision.
There are two major ways of carrying out an integration test, called the bottom-up method and the top-down method. Bottom-up integration testing begins with unit testing, followed by tests of of progressively higher-level combinations of units called modules or builds. In top-down integration testing, the highest-level modules are tested first and progressively lower-level modules are tested after that. In a comprehensive software development environment, bottom-up testing is usually done first, followed by top-down testing. The process concludes with multiple tests of the complete application, preferably in scenarios designed to mimic those it will encounter in customers' computers, systems and networks.


JAX-WS (Java API for XML Web Services)

Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS) is one of a set of Java technologies used to develop Web services. JAX-WS belongs to what Sun Microsystems calls the "core Web services" group. Like most of the core group, JAX-WS is typically used in conjunction with other technologies. Those other technologies may also come from the core Web services group (JAXB, for example), as well as from enhanced Web services (WSIT), secure Web services (WSIT, WS-Security), legacy Web services (JAX-RPC), and systems management services (WS-Management) groups.

JAX-WS is a fundamental technology for developing SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and RESTful (Web services that use representational state transfer, or REST, tools) Java Web services, where JAX-WS is designed to take the place of the JAVA-RPC (Remote Procedure Call) interface in Web services and Web-based applications. JAX-WS is also used to build Web services and corresponding clients that communicate using XML to send messages or use remote procedure calls to exchange data between client and service provider.

JAX-WS represents remote procedure calls or messages using XML-based protocols such as SOAP, but hides SOAP's innate complexity behind a Java-based API. Developers use this API to define methods, then code one or more classes to implement those methods and leave the communication details to the underlying JAX-WS API. Clients create a local proxy to represent a service, then invoke methods on the proxy. The JAX-WS runtime system converts API calls and matching replies to and from SOAP messages.


WS-Security (Web Services Security)
WS-Security (Web Services Security) is a proposed IT industry standard that addresses security when data is exchanged as part of a Web service. WS-Security is one of a series of specifications from an industry group that includes IBM, Microsoft, and Verisign. Related specifications include the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), WS-Coordination, and WS-Transaction.




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